Dark circles can simply be a sign of fatigue. Skin becomes pale with sleep deprivation, so blood vessels beneath the eyes become more pronounced. And with a pale complexion, dark circles may be a tell-tale sign of iron deficiency.

The delicate under-eye area is also more sensitive to environmental factors such as UV exposure, making signs of damage more obvious.

Under-eye puffiness is the result of fluid build-up, which can be caused by allergies, dehydration causing fluid retention, or a high-salt diet. Puffy or swollen eyes are typically worse upon waking, but gravity helps to drain fluid from the face.

If you are seeing dark circles or puffiness under your eyes, you need a skincare solution scientifically formulated to target the delicate under-eye skin to keep it fit, toned and glowing.